|IB#6||Aerial Cone Rake Users||September 1985||July 1986|
|IB#5||Cone Harvesting Rates||July 1982|
|IB#4||Production Rate Estimation||August 1983|
|IB#2||Operating and Assembly Instructions||May 1982||July 1982|
|IB#1||Factors Affecting Production Rates||November 1981|
|Fandrich Aerial Cone Collecting Rates|
|Western red cedar||10||22||24.30|
|Larch (poor crop)||(6)||89.20|
|* Conditions for high collecting rates:
a. heavy cone crop near top of crown,
b. good crop on most trees in patch,
c. heliport close to patch,
d. good external load pilot.
**Raking cost is calculated at the highest collecting rate based
on helicopter/rake charge of $535/h. Cost does not include
ferrying time nor sacking costs.
Alberta Forest Service, Slave Lake
B. C. Forest Products, Grande Cache
Balco Industries, Kamloops
British Columbia Forest Products
British Columbia Ministry of Forests
Canadian Forest Products
Crown Zellarbach, Kelowna
La Pas Lumber, Prince George
Pacific Forest Products, Victoria
Pacific Inland Resources, Smithers
Tahsis Company, Gold River
Weldwood of Canada, Quesnel
Western Forest Products, Port McNeil
West Fraser Mills, Quesnel
Yellow Point Propagation, Campbell R.
Department of Lands & Forests, Truro
Ministry of Natural Resources, Timmons
Georgia Pacific, Fort Bragg
Sierra National Forest, Fresno
Simpson Timber, Arcada
Stanislaus National Forest, Sonora
Bureau of Land Management
Lone Rock Timber, North Bend
Menasha, North Bend
Willamette National Forest, Oakridge
Georgia Pacific, Woodland
Kootenai National Forest, Missoula
Vermont Tree Nursery, Essex Junction
Department of Natural Resources
Georgia Pacific, Clearlake
Olympic National Forest, Olympia
Wenatchee National Forest, Leavenworth
Corda, Al. 1986. CONE RAKE PICKING IN FY 85. Kootenai National Forest, Libby, Montana. 6 pages. SUMMARY: Includes data on collecting ES, Inland DF and WL, describes items affecting costs, rates, and safety, compares falling/picking with aerial raking and gives operation recommendations. When compared to Fall/Pick/Salv DF, raking cost 2% more per acre but the advantages were: 1. getting seeds from larger gene pools, 2. reducing chance of "Imbreeding Depression", 3. finishing job sooner with fewer people, 4. reducing nursery costs, 5. gaining access to select trees in remote areas, 6. keeping trees growing.
Georgia Pacific Corp. 1985. GLACIER HELICOPTER CONE PICKING 1985 DOUGLAS-FIR CONES. Clearlake, Washington. 6 p. SUMMARY: Explains picking rate variation (13-44 bu/h) and lists criteria for high production. In 3 days a Fandrich rake collected 474 bu of Douglas fir cones at 29 bu/h.
Durham, Rose Marie & Wurm, Duncan C. 1985. CONES BY 'COPTER. "American Forests", November 1985. 3 p. SUMMARY: Describes collecting white fir cones in the Stanislaus National Forest, California. Aerial rakes cut collection costs in half and picked cones 36 times faster than climbers.
Fandrich, H.E. 1985. COLLECTING CONES FROM A BROAD GENETIC BASE WITH A FANDRICH AERIAL RAKE. Presented at Western Forestry Genetics Association Meeting in Missoula, Montana. 9 p. SUMMARY: Includes aerial cone harvesting history and describes aerial scion collecting. In 1982, 64% of cones in Vancouver B.C. Forest Region were raked aerially.
Rau, Clyde. 1985. SUMMARY OF 1985 AERIAL CONE HARVESTING CONTRACT. Olympic National Forest, Shelton, WA. 1 p. SUMMARY: Gives 1985 collecting rates. Pacific silver fir was collected at 62.5 bu/h, western red cedar at 22.2 bu/h, sitka spruce at 16.0 bu/h, Douglas fir at 11.0 bu/h and western hemlock at 9.8 bu/h.
Cornell, Blaine L. 1984 & 1985. APPRAISAL FANDRICH CONE RAKE - STANISLAUS N.F. Stanislaus National Forest, Sonora, California. 12 p. & 2 p. SUMMARY: Describes project preparation & operation, compares aerial raking with other collecting methods, presents extraction and germination rates according to elevation, analyzes costs, and suggests how to reduce cost. In 8 days, a rake collected 1080 bushels of white fir from 1168 trees at 44.7 bu/h; these cones yielded 2.4 lb seed/bu (climbing yielded 1.6 lb/bu) at a cost of $15.98/lb.
Hedin, I.B. 1983. AERIAL CONE COLLECTION TECHNIQUES IN BRITISH COLUMBIA. Technical Note No. TN-69. Forest Engineering Research Institute of Canada, Vancouver, British Columbia. 55 p. SUMMARY: Describes 12 aerial topping and raking collections, including cone volume and weight, cycle and ferrying times, and costs. An average load of 8.5 bu of amabilis fir weighed about 550 pounds.
Rau, Clyde. 1982. AN EVALUATION OF AERIAL CONE HARVESTING ON THE SHELTON RANGER DISTRICT, OLYMPIC NATIONAL FOREST SEPTEMBER 22 & 23, 1982. US Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Shelton, WA. 3 p. SUMMARY: Describes preparations, operations, production rates, costs, and evaluations. In 8 hours the Fandrich rake collected 319 bushels of Pacific Silver fir at $16.00/bu and 17 bushels of Western hemlock at $100.00/bu.
Bray, B. & McLean, H. 1982. OPERATIONAL TRIALS OF THE FANDRICH BRANCH COLLECTOR. Ontario Ministry of Natural Resources, Timmons, Ontario. 37 p. SUMMARY: Describes raking in Northern Ontario. White spruce harvesting rates varied 9-16 bu/h.
Fandrich Aerial Cone Rakes collect cones:
The following data give some of the cone collecting rates using Fandrich aerial cone rakes.
|Production Rate (hl/h)|
|Interior White spruce||6.2|
Sharp knives on the Fandrich Branch Collector 'prune' the tree but leave the treetop intact so that the tree continues to grow. The stress caused by the pruning may actually stimulate the tree to produce a larger volume of cones in future years.
SINCE 1979 AND
FROM COAST TO COAST
FANDRICH AERIAL CONE RAKES
HAVE QUICKLY COLLECTED QUALITY CONES
FROM THE TOP WHERE THE BEST CONES GROW.
The production rate of Fandrich aerial cone rakes is affected mainly by the density of the cones near the tree-top, the density of collectable trees in the stand and the distance between the trees and the unloading site. Other factors that influence the production rate are the species being collected, the shape of branches and treetops, the skill and speed of the pilot, the size of the helicopter, the efficiency of the ground crew, and the type of Fandrich aerial rake used. As there are many variables from one collection to another, the table below should be used only as a guide to production rates.
|Volume collected per hour (bu/h)|
|Distance travelled (mi)*||Volume
| Assumptions: trees per load=11, unloading time=45 sec,
raking rate=45 sec/tree, helicopter speed=80 mph*
|* 1 hl=2.84 bu (US), 1 km=.6 miles|
Fandrich Cone Harvesters are designed to collect seed bearing cones or scion material with the aid of a helicopter. After the pilot lowers the harvester over the top 10-15 feet of the tree, he raises the machine to remove the cones and branches from the tree. The collected branches and cones fall into a bin surrounding the harvester head. The full bin is dumped at a central unloading site. The Fandrich Cone Harvesters are connected to the cargo hook of the helicopter so that in case of a problem, the pilot can release the harvester at any time. Patents for all cone harvesters and scion collectors are pending.
The sharp knives on the Fandrich Branch Collector are designed to cut the cone-laden branches. The force necessary to cut the branches is supplied by the lift of the helicopter. The collector has no moving parts. The branch collector is used where some tree damage is tolerated. Even though most of the top branches are cut off, the top usually remains and the tree continues to grow.
The Fandrich Balsam Rake pulls the cone-laden branches through uniquely designed fingers that strip the cones but allow most of the bunched branches to pass through without breaking off. The cones and some branches fall into the holding bin for transport to the central unloading site when the bin is full. The balsam rake is used for collecting balsam and large diameter cones, (4 cm or larger). The stripping action of the rake is easier on the helicopter and pilot than the cutting action of the branch collector.
The rotating tines on the Fandrich Rotorake remove most of the cones from the branches as the harvester is lowered over the tree. Some small branches are also removed but the main stem remains on the tree. The power to drive the rotating tines is supplied by a gasoline engine, and not by the lift of the helicopter.
The knives on the periphery of the opening of the Fandrich Tree Topper sever the tree bole with one cut. After about 5-10 tree tops have been cut, the helicopter pilot unloads the tree tops at a central location where the cones are manually removed from the branches.
The knives on the Fandrich Scion Collector cut the branches of 'plus' trees. Because it is smaller and lighter than the cone harvesters, it can be ferried more quickly. It is designed to collect branches from two or three trees.
At the unloading site, the pilot lowers the collector to the ground where the ground crew attaches the chain link on the suspended cables to the wire bin. As the pilot lifts the helicopter slightly, he thereby raises the bin so that the cones and branches fall out of the bin. Then the pilot lowers the collector again to allow the ground crew to unhook the chain link.
The production rate of the Fandrich cone harvesting systems is affected mainly by the density of the cones on the tree and the density of collectable trees in the stand. Other factors such as the distance between the trees and the unloading site, the species being collected, the type of branches and treetops, the skill of the pilot, the efficiency of the ground crew, and the type of Fandrich harvester used also influence the production rate. As there is a great variation from one collection to another, these tables should be used only as a guide, and not as a basis of actual costs.
|Table I: Estimated Cost of Aerial Cone Collection Using Fandrich Cone Harvesters|
|Combined Fandrich Harvester Rental and Helicopter Charges ($/hl)|
|Av. distance from trees to unloading site (miles)|
|Additional costs for sacking @ $12 /hr:
$48/hl for sacking 2hl/man-day (e.g. lodgepole pine, spruce)
$24/hl for sacking 4hl/man-day (e.g. grand or amabilis fir)
trees collected/load=15, time to strip each tree=45 sec, unloading time=30 sec, flying time per day=4 hrs, helicopter rate=$465/hr, harvester rental=$300/day + $25/hl, percentage of cones collected is 75%, av. helicopter speed=80mph
The above table was set up to enable the forester to estimate the cost of using the Fandrich Cone Harvesters. It is necessary for the forester to determine the density of the cone crop to be harvested in terms of the number of trees required to supply one hectolitre of cones and the average distance the pilot has to fly from the trees to the landing site. The number of trees in a stand that have collectable crops affects the production rate; generally the production rate is adversely affected if the pilot has to look for and fly some distance to the next collectable tree. The pilot can maintain high production rates if every third or fourth tree is collectable.
Table I gives the estimated cost of aerial harvesting of cones using a Bell 206B helicopter and a rental rate for the Fandrich Cone Harvester for volumes in excess of 100 hL of cones. The table assumes that the flying time is 4 hours per day; if two pilots are available to fly the helicopter so that the flying time can doubled, the cost per hL is reduced by about 5%. The added advantage of two pilots is that the daily production can be doubled as well so that each hectolitre collected has a smaller proportion of helicopter ferrying costs charged to it.
Table I may also be used to set the limit to the distance the pilot is to fly to collect the cones. For example, for 8 trees/hL the $25.00/hL increased cost between cones at 2 miles and cones at 5 miles may make collecting cones 5 miles away from the unloading site uneconomical
Table I does not include helicopter ferrying costs which may be a significant portion of the total cost if the collecting area is a long distance away from the helicopter base. Likewise the tables do not include costs of a ground crew. Generally the ground crew would also be sacking the cones so that the cost of the ground crew would be part of the sacking cost.
Table II shows the result of a typical grand fir collection. The cost of this collection would be about $120./hL.
|Table II: Data from a Cone Collection on Vancouver Island in September 1981|
|Trees collected/load = 8||Helicopter rate = $465/hr|
|Time to strip each tree = 61 sec||Harvester rental = $0/day + $40/hl|
|Unloading time = 45 sec||Percentage of cones collected = 85%|
|Flying time per day = 3.2 hrs||Av. helicopter speed = 80 mph|
|Collection rate = 9.63 hl/hr flying time||Daily rate = 30.80 hl/day|
|Volume per load = 1.55 hl||Turnaround time = 9.63 min.|
|Av. distance to trees = .5 mi|
|Cone density = .227273 hl/tree (4.4 trees/hl)|
|Combined helicopter and harvester costs = $88.31/hl|
|Additional cost for sacking cones at $12/hr and 4 hl/man-day = $24.00hl|
|Additional cost for ferrying helicopter, 30 min/day = $7.55/hl|